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Home >> Genome Archive >> Bibliography for GENE WARS

THE GENE WARS:
Science, Politics, and the Human Genome

by Robert Cook-Deegan
1994 / ISBN 0-393-03572-7 / 416 pages


Bibliography for GENE WARS

447 US 303 (1980).

(CAHBI), A. H. C. o. E. o. B. (1991). Draft Recommendation on Genetic Testing and Screening for Health Care Purposes and Draft Explanatory Memorandum, Council of Europe.

(CAHBI), A. H. C. o. E. o. B. (1991). Draft Recommendation on the Use of Analysis of deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) within the Framework of the Criminal Justice System and Draft Explanatory Memorandum, Council of Europe.

[Interviews with Botstein (Genentech) and Davis (Stanford University) January 1987, a. B. G., August 1988].

Academia Europaea (1991). Research on the Human Genome in Europe and Its Relation to Activities Elsewhere in the World, Academia Europaea.

Ackerman, S. (1988). "Taking on the Human Genome." Am. Sci. 76(January-February): 17-18.

ADA regs (1991). The ELSI workging group urged EEOC to circumscribe health inquiries to only those questions that would elicit information about conditions that would affect job performance. The proposed regulations indicated that employers could obtain the full medical record, but could only use information that was job-related to reject a job applicant. This shifted power to the employer and took power away from the prospective employee. To assert discrimination, an individual would have to prove that the reason he or she was rejected was not job related, but the job applicant would have supplied vast amounts of information with little knowledge of how it was used by the employer. If, however, the employer never had medical information beyond that relevant to job performance in the first place, then arbitrary decisions could not be masked. This would increase the effort necessary on the part of employers to define what job-related questions to ask, and on those responding to employer requests, as they would have to filter the medical record rather than ship it out whole. It implied a major change in standard practice, but one in harmony with the ADA statute.

Adams, M. B., Ed. (1990). The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia. New York, Oxford University Press.

Adams, M. D., M. Dubnick, et al. (1992). "Sequence Identification of 2,375 Human Brain Genes." Nature 355(12 February): 632-634.

Adams, M. D., J. M. Kelley, et al. (1991). "Complementary DNA Sequencing: Expressed Sequence Tags and Human Genome Project." Science 252(21 June): 1651-1656.

additional witnesses Two additional witnesses gave excellent testimony, but the action centered on exchanges between Rep. Wise, Bernadine Healy, and James Watson. W. French Anderson also came from NIH; Philip Reilly, director of the Shriver Center for Mental Retardation in Waltham, MA, spoke about activity in the States, concerns of the American Society for Human Genetics, and general principles to be considered in possible legislation. He also noted the likelihood of large databases generated from DNA typing in the criminal justice system. Paul Billings, from the California Pacific Medical Center, gave general background on genetic discrimination and sketched out a few specific cases for the committee.

Adler, R. (1992). Adler quoted the 1988 OTA report that stated “genome projects raise no new questions of patent or copyright law” and went on to speculate that “contributing to this lack of foresight may have been an urgency to start the genome program." As author of the offending OTA sentence, I admit to embarrassment about such a bold and misleading oversimplification in the summary chapter. The unfortunate result was to distract from a subsequent chapter on technology transfer in the 1988 report that considered the issues in considerably more depth. The lack of foresight was not quite as bad as alleged. OTA urged early filing of patent applications. Failure to do so could “inhibit full exploitation of an invention” and invited “foreign exploitation of research funded at US taxpayers’ expense… Penicillin was discovered in England, but the patent was obtained by US corporations … the United Kingdom claimed the Nobel Prize, but the United States reaped most of the economic benefits.” OTA also noted “there is a gray area between invention of new methods and the data that result from using them,” but did not predict how DNA sequences themselves, of the sort at issue in the NIH patent application, would become the subject of patent controversy. Like scientists, public policy analysts can be humbled by the march of events.

Adler, R. (1992). Interview, Office of Technology Transfer, National Institutes of Health.

Adler, R. and R. Eisenberg (1992). Adler pointed to how sequences might be used to identify a tissue of origin. Rebecca Eisenberg noted the NIH application listed uses for forensic identification or as genetic markers. Just as the use of DNA markers for identification were useful only if population frequencies were known, all these uses would also require a great deal more to be known about the population distribution of the sequences, or how different tissues expressed them. Since Venter’s laboratory was identifying the genes for the first time, or they would not be novel, such information was by definition unavailable without further work. An added problem was that coming from protein-coding regions, their use for forensic typing would make these precisely the regions most likely to later prove related to a genetic disorder, making them poor candidates for general use because of the ethical problems this would raise. This does not, however, count against the contention that the sequences might someday be useful for something.

Adler, R. G. (1992). "Genome Research: Fulfilling the Public's Expectations for Knowledge and Commercialization." Science 257(14 August): 908-914.

Advisory Committee on the Human Genome (1992). A Genome Program in Canada, Summary sheet of the committee's recommendations prepared for the Canadian Cabinet by Charles Scriver.

Advisory Committee to the Director (1988). Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research, National Institutes of Health.

Ager, S. (1989). "Geri's Gamble." Washington Post Health(13 June): 12-18.

Alberts, B. (1988). Interview, University of California at San Francisco.

Alberts, B. (1990). Interview, University of California at San Francisco.

Alberts, B. and J. Burris (1991). Joint interview, National Academy of Sciences.

Alberts, B. M. (1985). "Limits to Growth: In Biology, Small Science is Good Science." Cell 41: 337-338.

Aldhous, P. (1990). "Imperial's Wellcome Support." Nature 344(1 March): 5.

Aldhous, P. (1991). "Closing a Loophole in Discrimination Rules." Nature 351(27 June): 684.

Aldhous, P. (1991). "HUGO Flirting with Johns Hopkins." Nature 352(4 July): 3.

Aldhous, P. (1991). "Who Needs a Genome Ethics Treaty?" Nature 351(13 June): 507.

Aldhous, P. (1992). "Britain Plans Large-Scale Sequencing Center." Science 256(15 May): 958.

Aldhous, P. (1993). "Geneticists Attack NRC Report as Scientifically Flawed." Science 259(5 February): 755-756.

Aldous, P. (1992). "The Promise and Pitfalls of Molecular Genetics." Science 257(10 July): 164-165.

Aldous, P. and C. Anderson (1992). "Reforms Win Praise, but Not Patrons." Nature 356(19 March): 187.

Allende, J. (1988). Background on the Human Genome Project, Red Latinoamericana de Ciencias Biologicas.

Allende, J. E. (1991). "A View from the South." FASEB Journal 5(January): 6-7.

Alwen, J. (1990). "United Kingdom Genome Mapping Project: Background, Development, Components, Coordination and Management, and International Links of the Project." Genomics 6(January): 386-388.

American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (1987). Council Policy Statement on Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome.

Anderson, A. (1990). "Japanese Papers Top Charts." Nature 343(18 January): 199.

Anderson, A. (1992). "Yeast Genome Project: 300,000 and Counting." Science 256(24 April): 462.

Anderson, C. (1991). "US Patent Application Stirs Up Gene Hunters." Nature 353(10 October): 485-486.

Anderson, C. (1992). "Courts Reject DNA Fingerprinting, Citing Controversy After NAS Report." Nature 359(1 October): 349.

Anderson, C. (1992). "Gene Wars Escalate as US Official Battles NIH Over Pursuit of a Patent." Nature 359(8 October): 467.

Anderson, C. (1992). "New French Genome Centre Aims to Prove That Bigger Really Is Better." Nature 357(18 June): 526-527.

Anderson, C. (1992). "NIH cDNA Patent Rejected; Backers Want to Amend Law." Nature 359(24 September): 263.

Anderson, C. (1992). "NIH Defends Gene Patents as Filing Deadline Approaches." Nature 357(28 May): 270.

Anderson, C. (1992). "US Genome Head Faces Charges of Conflict." Nature 356(9 April): 463.

Anderson, C. (1992). "US to Seek Gene Patents in Europe." Nature 357(18 June): 525.

Anderson, C. (1992). "Watson Resigns, Genome Project Open to Change." Nature 356(16 April): 549.

Anderson, C. (1993). "Genome Project Goes Commercial." Science 259(15 January): 300-302.

Anderson, C. and P. Aldhous (1992). "Genome Project Faces Commercialization Test." Nature 355(6 February): 483-484.

Anderson, C. and D. Swinbanks (1992). "US Prepares to Adopt World Patent Standards." Nature 356(23 April): 645-646.

Anderson, G. C. (1990). "Creation of Linkage Map Falters, Posing Delay for Genome Project." The Scientist 4(8 January): 1, 10, 12, 13.

Anderson, G. C. (1990). "Genome Project Spawns New Research on Ethics." The Scientist(22 January): 20.

Anderson, G. C. and P. Coles (1990). "United States Still Angry." Nature 344(26 April): 801.

Anderson, N. (1986). Informational Forum on the Human Genome, Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Anderson, N. (1990). Phone conversation. September. I. Large Scale Biology.

Anderson, N. G. and N. L. Anderson (1985). "A Policy and Program for Biotechnology." Am Biotech. Lab. Sept/Oct: 1-3.

Anderson, N. G. and N. L. Anderson (1986). Program for Large-Scale Analysis of Nucleotide Sequences (PLANS), Proteus Technologies.

Anderson, W. F., R. M. Blaese, et al. (1990). "The ADA Human Gene Therapy Clinical Protocol." Hum Gene Ther. 1(Fall): 331-362.

Andrews, L. B. (1990). DNA Testing, Banking, and Individual Rights. Genetic Screening. From Newborns to DNA Typing. B. M. Knoppers and C. M. Laberge. New York, Elsevier: 217-242.

Andrews, L. B. (1990). "The Gene Prophets." Vogue(January): 198, 199, 241.

Angier, N. (1990). "Vast, 15-Year Effort to Decipher Genes Stirs Opposition." New York Times(5 June): C1, C12.

Annas, G. (1991). "Ethics Committees." Hastings Center Report(May/June): 20.

Annas, G. J. and M. A. Grodin (1992). The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. New York, Oxford University Press.

Anonymous (1988). "Fear Stalks American Science." New Scientist(18 February): 34.

Anonymous (1989). Strategic Plan: Mission Statement, Genome Data Base.

Anonymous (1990). "GDB Introduced at HGM 10.5." GDB Forum 1(No. 2, Fall): 1,3.

Anonymous (1992). "Gone Private." National Journal(25 July): 1747.

Anonymous (1992). "People: Washington's Movers and Shakers." National Journal(25 July): 1747.

Ansorge, W. (1989). Interview. May. C. S. H. L. Genome Mapping and Sequencing Symposium.

Appenzeller, T. (1990). "Democratizing the DNA Sequence." Science 247(2 March): 1030-1032.

Asch, A. (1986). "Real Moral Dilemmas." Christianity and Crisis 46(#10, 14 July): 237-240.

Asch, A. (1988). Reproductive Technology and Disability. Reproductive Laws for the 1990s. S. Cohen and N. Taub. Clifton, NJ, Humana Press.

ASM News (1992). "Human Genome Advisors Reassess Progress, Scold NIH Patenting Efforts." ASM News 58(No. 3, March): 129-130.

Association of Biotechnology Companies (1992). ABC Statement on NIH Patent Filing for the Human Genome Project, Association of Biotechnology Companies, Washington, DC.

Association of Biotechnology Companies (1992). Letter to President George Bush, Association of Biotechnology Companies, Washington, DC.

Astrue, M. J. (1992). Letter to the Honorable Harry F. Manbeck, Jr., Patent and Trademark Office, US Department of Commerce, General Counsel, Department of Health and Human Services.

Avery, O. T., C. M. MacLeod, et al. (1944). "Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type III." J. Exp. Med. 79(1 February): 137-158.

Avner, P. (1991). "Sweet Mice, Sugar Daddies." Nature 351(13 June): 519-520.

Baltimore, D. (1987). "Genome Sequencing: A Small-Scale Approach." Iss. Sci. Tech. 3: 48-50.

Baltimore, D. (1988). Keynote address. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Annual meeting.

Baltimore, D. (1988). "'A Project Justified by Its Public Relations Value'." The Scientist(7 March): 12.

Balzer, H. (1992). Conversation following his return from Moscow, Russian Area Studies Program, Georgetown University.

Balzer, H. D. (1989). Soviet Science on the Edge of Reform. Boulder, CO, Westview Press.

Bankowski, Z. and A. M. Capron, Eds. (1991). Genetics, Ethics, and Human Values: Human Genome Mapping, Genetic Screening, and Gene Therapy. Proceedings of the XXIVth CIOMS Conference, Tokyo and Inuyama City, Japan, 22-27 July 1990. Geneva, CIOMS.

Barinaga, M. (1987). "Critics Denounce First Genome Map as Premature." Nature 329(15 October): 571.

Barinaga, M. (1988). "Mathematics and Molecular Biology." Nature 326(24 November): 301.

Barinaga, M. (1991). "And the Winner: Cetus Does Own PCR." Science 251(8 March): 1174.

Barinaga, M. (1991). "Biotech Nightmare: Does Cetus Own PCR?" Science 251(15 February): 739-740.

Barinaga, M. (1991). "Will 'DNA Chip' Speed Genome Initiative?" Science 253(27 September): 1489.

Barker, D., E. Wright, et al. (1987). "Gene for von Recklinghausen Neurofibromatosis Is in the Pericentromeric Region of Chromosome 17." Science 236: 1100-1102.

Barrell, B. (1990). "DNA Sequencing: Present Limitations and Prospects for the Future." FASEB Journal 5(January): 40-45.

Barry, J. (1990). Phone and in-person conversations, Free-lance writer working on profile of James D. Watson.

Barry, J. M. (1991). "Cracking the Code." Washingtonian(February): 63-67, 180-184.

Bayev, A. A. (1988). Interview, First International Workshop on Cooperation for the Human Genome Project, Valencia, Spain.

Bayev, A. A. (1989). Early in the 1930s, Bayev took courses from V. N. Slepkov, whose brother was associated with Bukharin, whom Stalin came to see as a dangerous rival. Graduate students who had studied under Slepkov were rounded up and sent to prison. By such tenuous connections were many lives shattered.

Bayev, A. A. (1989). The Human Genome, A General Overview (Genom Cheloveka, Obshchii Uzgliud), Scientific Council for the State Scientific-Technical Program "Human Genome," Moscow.

Bayev, A. A. (1989). Interview, UNESCO-USSR workshop on the Human Genome Project, Moscow.

Bayev, A. A. (1990). "The Human Genome Project in the USSR." Biomed. Sci. 1: 106-107.

Bayev, A. A. (1990). Interview, UNESCO Workshop on the Human Genome Project, Paris.

Bayev, A. A. (1990). Interview, Englehardt Institute for Molecular Biology, planning meeting for June 1990 international meeting on ethical, legal and social issues related to genome research in Bethesda, MD.

Beam, A. and J. O. C. Hamilton (1987). "A Grand Plan to Map the Gene Code." Business Week(April 27): 116-117.

Beardsley, T. (1986). "Hughes Money Talks Volumes." Nature 323(30 October): 749.

Bearn, A. G. and E. D. Miller (1979). "Archibald Garrod and the Development of the Concept of Inborn Errors of Metabolism." Bull Hist Med 53(Fall): 315-328.

Beatty, J. (1991). Genetics in the Atomic Age: The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, 1947-1956. The Expansion of American Biology. K. Benson, Rutgers University Press.

Beauchamp, T. (1986-1991). Kennedy Institute of Ethics Tuesday seminars, electronic mail communications, and conversations, Department of Philosophy, Georgetown University; Beauchamp was on the staff of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

Beaudet, A. L. (1990). "Carrier Screening for Cystic Fibrosis." Am J Hum Genet 47: 603-605.

Beckman, A. O. (1985). Letters to Robert L. Sinsheimer, Chancellor, University of California, Santa Cruz, Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation.

Begley, S., S. E. with Katz, et al. (1987). "The Genome Initiative." Newsweek(August 31): 58-60.

Benson, R. H. (1986). "Patent Wars." Bio/Technology 4(December): 1064-1970.

Bentley, D. R. (1996). "Genomic sequence information should be released immediately and freely in the public domain." Science 274: 533-534.

Berg, P. (1990). Note to author, commenting on a meeting of the Committee to Study Decisionmaking, Institute of Medicine, Beckman Center, Irvine California. March. S. University.

Berg, P. and W. Gilbert (1986). Comments taped by C. Thomas Caskey at session on the Human Genome project, symposium on the Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Berg, P. and L. Lerman (1992). Letter to Dr. Frank Press, President of the National Academy of Sciences, Chairman, NIH Program Advisory Committee on the Human Genome (Berg) and Acting Chairman, DOE Health and Enviornmental Research Advisory Committee (Lerman).

Berg, P. and L. Lerman (1992). Letters to Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Bernadine Healy, Chairman, NIH Program Advisory Committee for the Human Genome; Acting Chairman, DOE Health and Environmental Research Advisory Committee; Co-chairman and Acting Co-chairman, NIH-DOE Joint Subcommittee.

Berg, P. and S. Wolff (1991). Letter to Evan J. Kemp, Chairman, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, NIH/DOE Joint Subcommittee on the Human Genome.

Berns, K. I., E. C. Bond, et al. (1996). Resource Sharing in Biomedical Research. Washington, DC, Insitute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.

Beyer, W. A., C. Burks, et al. (1983). "Quantitative Comparison of DNA Sequences." Los Alamos Science(Fall): 62-63.

Beyer, W. A., M. L. Stein, et al. (1974). "A Molecular Sequence Metric and Evolutionary Trees." Math Biosci 19: 9-25.

Billings, P. (1990). Genetic Discrimination: An Ongoing Survey, GeneWatch, Council for Responsible Genetics, accompanying 27 June letter to Rep. Hoyer and Sen. Harkin.

Billings, P. (1991). "Beware of Insurers Offering Tests." San Francisco Examiner(11 July): A17.

Bilofsky, H., D. George, et al. (1987). Invited Speakers for a meeting of the Committee on Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome, Board on Basic Biology, National Academy of Sciences.

Biosystems Reporter (1990). "Wolf Trap Conference Marks Turning Point in Developing Technologies for Sequencing the Human Genome." Biosystems Reporter(#7, February): 1, 6, 7.

Bishop, J. E. and H. Stout (1992). "Gene Scientist to Leave NIH, Form Institute." Wall St. J.(7 July): B1, B4.

Bishop, J. E. and M. Waldholz (1990). Genome: The Story of the Most Astonishing Scientific Adventure of Our Time — The Attempt to Map All the Genes in the Human Body. New York, Simon and Schuster.

Bishop, M. J., M. Ginsburg, et al. (1987). Molecular Sequence Databases. Nucleic Acid and Protein Sequence Analysis: A Practical Approach. M. J. Bishop and C. J. Rawlings. Oxford, UK, IRL Press.

Bishop, M. J. and C. J. Rawlings (1987). Nucleic Acid and Protein Sequence Analysis: A Practical Approach. Oxford, UK, IRL Press.

Bitensky, M. (1986). Sequencing the Human Genome. Santa Fe Workshop, March 3-4, 1986, Santa Fe, NM, Office of Health and Envirnomental Research, US Department of Energy (Published by the University of California under contract W 7405-ENG-36, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM).

Bitensky, M., C. Burks, et al. (1986). Memo to Charles DeLisi, DOE Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Bitensky, M. W. (1986). Letter to Charles DeLisi, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Bitensky, M. W. (1986). Memo to Los Alamos Planning Group Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Blakeslee, S. (1991). Of Mice and Men, Blazing a Genetic Trail. Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Blanchard, F. (1990). Press statement: The Howard Hughes Medical Institute Awards $1 Million Grant to the Human Genome Organization, Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Bloom, F. E. and M. A. Randolph, Eds. (1990). Funding Health Sciences Research. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.

Blow, M. (1968). The History of the Atomic Bomb. New York, American Heritage.

Blumenthal, D., N. Causino, et al. (1997). "Academic-industry research relationships in genetics: a field apart." Nature Genetics 16(May): 104-108.

Blundell, T. L., B. L. Sibanda, et al. (1987). "Knowledge-Based Prediction of Protein Structures and the Design of Novel Molecules." Nature 326(26 March): 347-352.

Bodmer, W. (1979). Molecular and Genetic Organization: The Future. Human Genetics: Possibilities and Realities, Excerpta Medica. Ciba Foundation Series 66 (new series): 395-400.

Bodmer, W. (1986). "The 1985 Darwin Lecture: Genetics and Cancer." Biology and Society 3: 108-117.

Bodmer, W. (1986). Genetic Susceptibility to Cancer. Accomplishments in Cancer Research, 1985, General Motors Cancer Research Foundation. J. C. Fortner and J. E. Rhoads, J. B. Lippincott: 198-210.

Bodmer, W. (1988). "Presidential Address 1988, British Association for the Advancement of Science, Genes and Atoms for Health and Prosperity." Science and the Public(September/October): 3-8.

Bodmer, W. (1990). "Social and Political Implications of the Mapping of the Human Genome." Science in Parliament 47(April): 87-93.

Bodmer, W. (1992). "Genome Research in Europe." Science 256(24 April): 480-481.

Bodmer, W. F. (1981). "The William Allan Memorial Award Address: Gene Clusters, Genome Organization, and Complex Phenotypes. When the Sequence Is Known, What Will It Mean?" Am. J. Hum. Genet. 33: 664-682.

Bodmer, W. F. (1986). "Human Genetics: The Molecular Challenge." CSH Symp. Quant. Biol. 51: 1-13.

Bodmer, W. F. (1986). "Two Cheers for Genome Sequencing." The Scientist(October 20): 11-12.

Bodmer, W. F. (1987). The Human Genome Sequence and the Analysis of Multifactorial Traits. 1987 Molecular Approaches to Human Polygenic Disease. Chichester, Wiley. Ciba Foundation Symposium 130: 215-228.

Bodmer, W. F., C. J. Bailey, et al. (1987). "Localization of the Gene for Familial Adenomtous Polyposis in Chromosome 5." Nature 328: 614-616.

Bodmer, W. F. and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (1976). Genetics, Evolution, and Man. San Francisco, W. H. Freeman.

Boffey, P. M. (1986). Rapid Advances Point to the Mapping of All Human Genes. The Debate: Would Accelerated Project Distort Usual Methods of Biology? New York Times. New York City: Science Times, C1ff.

Boffey, P. M. (1987). Medical Institute Shaken in Furor Over Its President. New York Times. New York City: Science Times, C1 and C3.

Bostock, J. (1988). Interview, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, 8th floor.

Bostock, J. (1989). Interview, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, 8th floor.

Botstein, D. (1987). Implications for Basic Research, National Institutes of Health.

Botstein, D. (1987). Interview, Genentech.

Botstein, D. (1988). Interview, Genentech.

Botstein, D. (1990). Interview, Genentech Headquarters, South San Francisco.

Botstein, D. (1991). Electronic mail note, Stanford University.

Botstein, D. and P. Berg (1986). Comments taped by C. Thomas Caskey at session on Human Genome Project, at the symposium on the molecular biology of Homo sapiens, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Botstein, D. and G. R. Fink (1988). "Yeast: An Experimental Organism for Modern Biology." Science 240(10 June): 1439-1443.

Botstein, D., R. L. White, et al. (1980). "Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map in Man Using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms." Am J. Hum. Genet. 32: 314-331.
landmark paper on RFLP mapping in man.

Bourke, F. A. (1992). Letter to Bernadine P. Healy, Director, NIH.

Bowcock, A. and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (1991). "The Study of Variation in the Human Genome." Genomics 11(October): 491-498.

Bowcock, A. M., J. R. Kidd, et al. (1991). "Drift, Admixture, and Selection in Human Evolution: A Study with DNA Polymorphisms." Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci (USA) 88: 839-843.

Bowie, J. U., R. Lüthy, et al. (1991). "A Method to Identify Protein Sequences That Fold into a Known Three-Dimensional Structure." Science 253(12 July): 164-170.

Bradbury, W. (1970). Genius on the Prowl. Life: 57-66.

Brady, D. (1990). "Breaking the Code." McLean's(27 August): 44-45.

Braibant, G. (1988). Sciences de la Vie, De l'Éthique au Droit, Étude du Conseil d'État, Government of France, Paris.

Brandt, J., K. Quaid, et al. (1989). "Presymptomatic Diagnosis of Delayed-Onset Disease with Linked DNA Markers." JAMA 261(2 June): 3108-3114.

Breitner, J. C. S., M. F. Folstein, et al. (1986). "Familial Aggregation in Alzheimer Dementia — I. A Model for the Age-Dependent Expression of an Autosomal Dominant Gene." J Psychiat Res 20: 31-43.

Breitner, J. C. S., E. A. Murphy, et al. (1986). "Familial Aggregation in Alzheimer Dementia — II. Clinical Genetic Implications of Age-Dependent Onset." J Psychiat Res 20: 45-55.

Brenner, S. (1973). "Genetics of Behavior." Brit. Med. Bull. 29: 269-271.

Brenner, S. (1974). "Genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans." Genetics 77(1): 71-94.

Brenner, S. (1986). Map of Man, Commission of the European Communities.

Brenner, S. (1988). Foreword. The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. W. B. Wood. Cold Spring Harbor, NY, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: ix-xiii.

Brock, D. W. (1987). "Truth or Consequences: The Role of Philosophers in Policy-Making." Ethics 97(July): 786-791.

Brown, D. and M. Gladwell (1992). "Nobel Prize Biologist Watson Plans to Resign US Position." Wash Post(9 April): A3.

Brown, D. D. (1991). "Views of the Genome Project (letter)." Science 251(22 February): 854-855.

Brown, G. E. (1986). "Working Together, Benefiting All." Congressional Record(31 July): E 2668-2669.

Brown, P. (1992). "A Wellcome Injection of Cash." New Scientist 135(No. 1832, 1 August): 12-13.

Brown, P. and D. Concar (1991). "Where Does the Genome Project Go from Here?" New Sci 131(17 August): 13-14.

Brown, S. and R. Woodbury (1989). "Battle for the Future." Time(16 January): 42-43.

Brown, S. D. (1982). Translator's Introduction. The Diary of Kido Takayoshi. Sidney DeVere Brown and Akiko Hirota. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press. I: 1968-1971: xvi-xxi.

Buck v. Bell (1927). "274 U. S. 200." S. Ct. 47: 584.

Buddecke, M. (1990). Phone interview, New Mexico State Capitol.

Budget tables for NIGMS genetics program (1992). By this reasoning, $25 million, or just over 10 percent of the NIGMS genetics program, moved away with the genome center. Some unknown fraction of the science supported by the genome center would likely have been supported by NIGMS, but certainly not all. It seems likely that some would instead have gone for study of gene regulation, recombination, and other basic genetics.

Budget tables for NIGMS genetics program (1992). The year NIH first had a special genome budget, the Genetics Program Branch at NIGMS saw a budget increase from $188.9 million (1987) to $213.8 million (1988). In 1989, when the genome project left NIGMS, the Genetics Program Branch budget went down to $209.6 million, and it dropped again to $207.8 million in 1990, before rebounding to $218.3 million in 1991 and an estimated $229.5 million in 1992. During these same years, the NIH genome budgets were: $17.2 million (1988, within NIGMS); $28.2 million (1989); $59.5 million (1990); $87.4 million (1991); and $104.9 million (1992 estimate). The 1993 increase was even larger than shown, as the GenBank contract amount of roughly $4 million was tranferred to the National Library of Medicine.

Bulger, R. J. (1991). "How the Genome Project Could Destroy Health Insurance." Washington Post, Outlook(4 August): C4.

Burke, D. T., G. F. Carle, et al. (1987). "Cloning of Large Segments of of Exogenous DNA into Yeast Artificial-Chromosome Vectors." Science 236: 806-808.

Burks, C. (1989). The Flow of Nucleotide Sequence Data into Data Banks: Role and Impact of Large-Scale Sequencing Projects, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Burks, C., M. J. Cinkosky, et al. (1989). GenBank: Current Status and Future Directions, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Burner, S. T., D. R. Waldo, et al. (1992). "National Health Expenditures Projections through 2030." Health Care Fin Rev 14(No. 2, Fall): 1-29.

Burrill, G. S. and K. Lee, B. (1991). Biotech 92: Promise to Reality, Ernst & Young, Associates, San Francisco.

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The Human Genome Project is a major scientific area that now depends heavily on international cooperation in order to avoid both costly competition and duplication of effort…it is the entire spectrum of international scientific collaboration that may be jeopardised. HUGO therefore urges a quick resolution to the EST case.

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Monbusho budget Matsubara tried to secure a ¥6.5 billion budget ($43 million) to support two five-year projects under Monbusho [Matsubara, 1990 #1451; Matsubara, 1990 #1457; Matsubara, 1990 #1455; Ministry of Education Science and Culture, 1990 #198]. The first year’s budget was ¥400 million ($2.7 million) for the biology program. A second, separate but related, program focused on informatics. A new Genome Analysis Center would be established at the University of Tokyo, with a national research group and a five-year commitment (first year budget ¥220 million, or $1.5 million). This was to be the first installment on a much larger program. The Monbusho plan laid out a strategy for genome research, urging establishment of groups in five areas: 1) physical and genetic mapping, 2) analysis of complementary DNA collections (cDNA, representing those parts of DNA transcribed to RNA and representing the expressed parts of genes), 3) pursuit of new techniques to analyze DNA, 4) informatics, and 5) science and society. The Monbusho proposal set aside funds for international scientific workshops and for training of postdoctoral fellows and other research personnel [Matsubara, 1991 #1456; Ministry of Education Science and Culture, 1990 #198].

Monbusho cuts This was roughly ¥200 million ($1.5 million ) short of Matsubara’s aspirations for Monbusho. The five elements remained, led by Matsubara (Osaka University), Mitsuaki Yoshida (Tokyo University), Minoru Kanehisa (Kyoto University), with a smaller program at Kyushu University [Matsubara, 1992 #1086].

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OMB Briefing (1986). The budget briefing documents for the OHER-OMB meetings included budget projections for fiscal years 1987-90 of 5.64, 11.55, 18, and 22 million dollars. The cover sheet for the DOE document to OMB specified a four year project starting October 1, 1987, extending to September 30, 1991, and costing 95 million dollars. By simple arithmetic, the fiscal year 1991 budget must have been projected at 40 to 45 million dollars. Decisions about a Phase II budget were to be made in 1990 and 1991.

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Kan had already shown alpha-globin del by hybridization in solution. They used S blot, technically easier and also able to pick up more subtle changes, like loss of fragments (rather than complete absence of hybridizing sequences).
Used alpha and beta-hemoglobin probes; enzymes were Eco RI and Hin dIII

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Used RFL to track inheritance of strains heterozygous for ribosomal DNA variants. Size of Eco RI fragments. Suggested that at least 90 percent of the est 100-140 rDNA genes were on a single chromosome (from others' work, on chrm I). Showed suppression of meiotic recombination in this region. Twelve of 14 variants examined showed no recombination of rDNA regions. 2 of 14 showed mitotic, not meiotic, recombination (distinguished by finding nonreciprocal recomb). \
Diploid strain from Lee Hartwell cleaved by Eco RI, DNA-DNA hybridization to rDNA probe.

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